how to write discussion of findings

3. In these pages we consider these two activities separately, while recognising that in many kinds of thesis they will be integrated. This is writing to think. Do the results conf… This section is concerned with presenting the analysis of the results of data analysis. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. (Adapted from Swales &  Feak, 2004, p. 138). As can be seen in the table, home disks are the most frequent source of infection. Do your findings disprove your hypothesis? Authorised by: Chief Marketing Officer, Strategic Marketing and Communications. Restating the results without interpretation or links to other research. You're tired and the last thing you want to do is keep writing. Do all the headings relate to the research question(s)? Your dissertation's discussion should tell a story, say experts. Qualitative data is difficult to present neatly in tables and figures. The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information In a thesis including publication, it will be the central section of an article. Table 5 shows the most common modes of computer infection in Australian businesses. I'll have a small group on the mat and there might be some children sitting down and having a snack and there's still some children in home corner playing. "However, this will make your dissertation seem like it has raised more questions than it answers.". For many kinds of research, the main work of interpretation cannot be done until most of the data has been collected and analysed. Silverman, D. (2005). The blog post explains how to write discussion section of your paper. DO: Look toward the future. COVID-19 resources for psychologists, health-care workers and the public. Claims should therefore be specific and precise, and the level of certainty must match the level of evidence. There are many methods used in academic writing to qualify a claim: .divTable{ display: table; width: 100%; } .divTableRow { display: table-row; } .divTableHeading { background-color: #EEE; display: table-header-group; } .divTableCell, .divTableHead { border: 0px solid #999999; display: table-cell; padding: 3px 10px; } .divTableHeading { background-color: #EEE; display: table-header-group; font-weight: bold; } .divTableFoot { background-color: #EEE; display: table-footer-group; font-weight: bold; } .divTableBody { display: table-row-group; }. But don't dwell on the future at the expense of the present,says Scholl. "No reader wants to wade through ten pages of suppositional reasoning," says Roddy Roediger, PhD, chair of psychology at Washington University. "It is easy to get caught up in the desire to be extremely comprehensive and to bring up every potential issue, flaw, future direction and tangentially related concept," says Sackett. There are generally accepted guidelines for presenting the results of statistical analyses of data about populations or groups of people, plants or animals. Thanks for letting us know that this page . Therefore, you should only use the studies mentioned in the … Information for Indigenous Australians. The discussion section is the place to leave your mark. In shorter dissertations, it might make sense to have both of these comprise one section. 1. Quantitative analysis revealed some variation in the composition of the rods in the various exservice samples (Figure 7 and Table 5). While the amount of discussion required in a thesis may vary according to discipline, all  disciplines expect some interpretation of the findings that makes these connections. It is usually expressed in words, and this results in a large quantity of written material, through which you must guide your reader. It must be in whole sentences and you must not stop. For some fields of study, the presentation and discussion of findings follows established conventions; for others, the researcher’s argument determines the structure. How to write the Discussion section of a scientific research paper. Below are some important principles for reporting experimental, quantitative (survey) and qualitative studies. If so, why might this be? Rather, it's the time to pull back and take a fresh look at your work. Academic Writing for Graduate Students (2nd ed.). In this Chapter, all the experimental results from the phenomenological experiments outlined in Section 5.2 are presented and examined in detail. ABN 12 377 614 012 Accessibility - Disclaimer and copyright - Website terms and conditions - Data Protection and Privacy Procedure - Data Consent Settings, Monash University CRICOS Provider Number: 00008C, Monash College CRICOS Provider Number: 01857J. The difficulty in dating this archeological site. Make reference to similarities or differences in approach or findings. If so, what do they add to it? or b) from the data, by showing its limitations: Some studies indicate that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. You will need to check with your supervisor what your university department’s rules are regarding these two sections. While the summary presents information, the discussion analyzes the data and explains to the reader what your results mean relative to the problem you stated in your introduction. Eager to reach the finishing line, they miss the opportunity to fully explore their findings … Golden-Biddle, K., & Locke, K. (1997). Write about your data for 5 minutes. The way you present the analysis and interpretation of your data sits within a wider thesis framework, which can itself be thought of as a story (adapted from Silverman, 2005, p. 242-43): The challenge for every thesis writer is to hold the detail of the data in focus without losing sight of the big picture of the research. How to Write a Better Thesis (2nd ed.). Failing to differentiate between strong and weak results as you make conclusions about them. Do your research findings support your initial hypothesis? By the time readers get to your discussion, they're tired, adds Sackett. Another technique you can use to unlock your unconscious thought processes is freewriting. Fellow students, your adviser and your dissertation committee members can help provide that outside perspective, adds Yale clinical psychology professor Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, PhD, who teaches a course on writing in psychology. For each of these graduates, their work with children was clearly the area of their professional lives that was bringing the most satisfaction, although there were some challenges identified. A key purpose of the discussion section is to move from specifics to general information. Evans and Gruba suggest you try these techniques: 1. That includes avoiding language that implies causality when your study can only make relational conclusions. (2004). The presentation of results from experimental studies will be different again. If the discussion is in a self-contained chapter or section you will need to briefly summarise the major findings that come from the research and relate them to what you originally proposed to find out.If your research is testing a hypothesis, you need to answer these questions: Since one of the requirements of a doctorate is to make a contribution to knowledge, it is essential to show how your results fit in with other work that has been done in your field. knowledge you are sure of because you have reliable evidence for it, other knowledge you think is only within the realms of possibility. Give them something clear, concise and interesting to read, and they're sure to appreciate it. 4. Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. Melbourne University Press. It probably won’t produce text you can use in your thesis, but it might help to clarify your ideas and show you ways to structure your argument. The Discussion Section. Presenting new results; such data belong in the results section. Consistently use ‘this’ to refer to your own research and refer to previous research by name, place or time. Use these groups and headings to make a plan of the points you want to make in your discussion. What else do your findings tell you, over and above what you initially set out to investigate? The new data may be found in Appendix C. The principal goal of the vernacular adaptor of a Latin saint's life was to edify and instruct his audience. Why and how? Use the same terms, academic writing style that was used throughout your research paper 3. Going overboard on limitations, leading readers to wonder why they should read on. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. It is also one of the most difficult parts to write, and sometimes the longest. You can read more about reporting quantitative results in the next section, Reporting conventions. Information contained in this section will highlight the finer details of writing up your findings and discussion sections. The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to … This is not the time to hurry through just because the end is in sight, say experts and students alike. Have you learnt anything? University of Michigan Press, We acknowledge and pay respects to the Elders and Traditional Owners of the land on which our four Australian campuses stand. It is important to plan this section carefully as it may contain a large amount of scientific data that needs to be presented in a clear and concise fashion. It is important that everything in this last section is based off of the results of the data analysis. Use a single sentence for each item. comments on whether the results are expected or unexpected. Steven David, PhD, who successfully defended his dissertation in clinical geropsychology at the University of Southern California last May, found this point to be particularly difficult. Your discussion should begin with a cogent, one-paragraph summary of the study's key findings, but then go beyond that to put the findings into context, says Stephen Hinshaw, PhD, chair of the psychology department at the University of California, Berkeley. These include stating your interpretations, declaring your opinions, explaining the effects of your findings, and making suggestions and predictions for future research. How to write chapter 4 Research findings Chapter 4 for Qualitative Research carries different titles such as ‘Analysis of Data’, ‘Results of Study’, ‘Analysis and Results’ and so forth. Structure is therefore very important. In your discussion you must draw together your research question and your own research results. You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice. Chapter 5 Discussion of findings 106 PhD Degree in Tourism Management – Leslie, D (2008) from which data was gathered is small, the researcher is of the opinion that the results still provide meaningful findings and insights that could be generalised to normal … You can read more about reporting qualitative results in the next section, Reporting conventions. DON'T: Simply rehash your results. You've conducted your research, analyzed your findings and written your results. (p. 105), The ranges of metal atom concentrations for the two precipitate types were found to overlap (Table 6). One of the biggest errors students make in their discussion is exaggeration, say experts. Last updated: Nov 2020. It is important that the results be presented in an informative way. In this section, your findings should be the focus, rather than those of other researchers. Now check the headings against your research question(s). If you are discussing your findings in a separate chapter or section, limit your comments here to the specific results you have presented. Therefore it is important for you to investigate the conventions of your own discipline, by looking at journal articles and theses. In longer pieces of work, these chapters are usually separate. Ideally, you will have written them down as they came to you. The discussion of findings is often considered one of the most important part of thesis project/research work in the sense that, this is where the researcher of a project topic presents the underlying findings of his research. The discussion is the meaty part of your Findings report and can be of great value to your audience if written appropriately. For others, the data already exists (in the form of archival documents or literary texts, for example), and the work of interpreting it begins much earlier in the research process.Whatever kind of research you are doing, there comes a moment when your head is full of ideas that have emerged from your analysis. What are the key concepts you have used in this study? Maintained by: Research & Learning Online Webmaster Team. "Too often I am left excited not by what was in the dissertation, but by what was not in the dissertation. In the discussion of your findings you have an opportunity to develop the story you found in the data, making connections between the results of your analysis and existing theory and research. Bavdekar, S. B. University assignments are a big challenge, but we can guide you. the incorrect calibration of the instruments. The data needs to be connected back through the layers of detail to the overarching research question it relates to. In presenting your own interpretation of the results, consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternative interpretations from the literature. Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. If you have nothing to write, write 'I have nothing to write'. In all cases, though, the presentation should have a logical organisation that reflects: You are not simply describing the data. "The point of a discussion, in my view, is to transcend 'just the facts,' and engage in productive speculation," he says. So it is worth finding out what conclusions your brain has reached  while  you  were collecting and analysing your data. Literature reviews play an important role in the discussion section of a manuscript. Do your findings only support the hypothesis in part? The next big step is to write the discussion. In this chapter I shall try to show to what extent our texts conform to vernacular conventions of a well-told story of a saint, and in what ways they had to modify their originals to do so, attempting also to identify some of the individual characteristics of the three poems. Lapsing into causal language when your data were correlational. Every thesis writer has to present and discuss the results of their inquiry. What, therefore, has become of your original research problem and the literature regarding it? Do your results agree with previous research? Thesis Writing: 9 Tips on How to Write the Results and Discussion Regoniel, Patrick May 25, 2015 Education , Research 3 Comments Writing the results and discussion section could be one of the difficulties that you encounter when writing your first research manuscript. When he defended his master's thesis, his committee told him his conclusions went too far out on a limb. For this age group , reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. For example, a thesis in oral history and one in marketing may both use interview data that has been collected and analysed in similar ways, but the way the results of this analysis are presented will be very different because the questions they are trying to answer are different. But avoid beginning the discussion with a long list of study limitations, says Nolen-Hoeksema. Think of your discussion and conclusion section as an inverted pyramid: start from the general aspects of your research and then focus on the specifics. 3. How do you find the balance? Help us improve your experience by  providing feedback  on this page. This page and the next, on reporting and discussing your findings, deal with the core of the thesis. 2. How will you decide which aspects of your findings are the most interesting and important? https://wordvice.com/research-writing-tips-editing-manuscript- Ask yourself these questions: 1. David Evans and Paul Gruba (2002, p.112) remind us that our minds continue to work on problems when we aren't thinking about them consciously. For all types of research, decisions about what data to include are important. Dissertation discussion is the chapter where you explore the relevance, significance and meanings of your findings - giving you the opportunity to showcase your talents in terms of describing and analyzing results of your study.. develops the questions by discussing them. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. establish the connections between the patterns that emerge from your analysis and your research questions, relate those connections to the existing research and theory, the aims or research question(s) of the project, including any hypotheses that have been tested. the limited amount of organic material available. "Many students reach this stage of their careers having been focused for several years on the 'trees,'" says Yale University cognitive psychology professor Brian Scholl, PhD. Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Composing Qualitative Research. Here you will be expected to demonstrate how your research findings answer the research questions established or test the hypothesis stated. For more detailed guidance, we have an excellent handbook titled Write a convincing discussion section – The key to journal acceptance. If so, what do they add to it? Why and how? In the interviews, the data reveal that they were all seeking ways to improve their pedagogy and achieving success in different ways…. Writing a Conclusion Section. Starting with limitations instead of implications. If your results differ from others' findings, you should try to explain why, says Nolen-Hoeksema. 3. Be clear and concise – focus on argument that helps to answer your research question or supports the hypothesis; avoid discussing distracting issues. Do the results conf… If so, why might this be? Do the questions need refining? Highlight the important trends and differences/comparisons. contextually grounded (based on your data), viewed as a contribution by the relevant professional community of readers (they add something to the current body of research or theory). Some researchers suggest that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. There is a great deal of disciplinary variation in the presentation of findings. Step 4: Write your findings section in a factual and objective manner.The goal is to communicate information – in some cases a great deal of complex information – as clearly, accurately and precisely as possible, so well-constructed sentences that maintain a simple structure will be far more effective than convoluted phrasing and expressions. The demographic data consisted of age, sex, years of experience and 2. Offering no concluding statements or ending with the limitations. Are your findings very different from other studies? The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Themes that emerged from the ESL students’ focus groups were compared and contrasted to the themes generated from the in-depth individual interviews with the academics. Give each group a heading. DON'T: Simply rehash your results. seem to provide evidence that Angela is growing professionally for two reasons. A claim like this, which implies that the statement is true in every case, cannot be supported with evidence. Our resources will help you with everything from reading to note-taking, and time management to exams. "This section of the dissertation provides an opportunity to revisit the 'forest.'". After that, the organisation will vary according to the kind of research being reported. Reducing fat intake appears to lower the risk of heart disease. In the discussion of your findings you have an opportunity to develop the story you found in the data, making connections between the results of your analysis and existing theory and research. It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. These comments seem to provide evidence that Angela is growing professionally for two reasons. Point out the agreements and disagreements between your data and that of others. Why and how? Depending on the nature or your research, these will probably be related to: The skill in writing a successful discussion is in moving backwards and forwards between others' research and your own research, making it clear: Remember that you are dealing with three different issues and the three must be clearly differentiated for the reader. It is what all of your hard-work of writing the hypothesis, collecting and designing the data, conducting the statistical analysis of graphs and preparing the summary sums up to. You should always keep in mind the main goals when writing your Discussion chapter. Failing to acknowledge limitations or dismissing them out of hand.Â. 4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.3.1 Demographic Relationships and Study Variables Although it was not part of the purpose of the study, this set of data was intended to describe demographic variables of the sample and to assess for any influence on the research findings. Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. 1. The Discussion section represents the analysis of your research paper. Another aspect of making clear the contribution of your research is to draw out the implications of your findings. How do your 'findings' shed light on these concepts and, through them, on the substantive topics you studied? (2015) Writing the discussion section: Describing the significance of the study findings, Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 63, 11, pp. Speculation is fine as long as you acknowledge that you're speculating and you don't stray too far from your data, say experts. (At this point, don't worry about whether they relate to your aims or research questions.). Include what you need to support the points you need to make. 2. In this chapter the results will be analyzed via thematic content analysis within the context of the literature reviewed in chapter two. "If your study was not a true experiment, replace verbs that imply causation with words and phrases such as 'correlated with,' 'was associated with' and 'related to,'" write John Cone, PhD, and Sharon Foster, PhD, in a forthcoming revision of "Dissertations and Theses from Start to Finish" (APA, 2006). Use text to introduce tables and figures and guide the reader through key results, Point out differences and relationships, and provide information about them, Include negative results (then try to explain them in the Discussion section/chapter). Indicate whether the hypothesis is supported or not. , including how they fit in with previous work University department ’ s rules how to write discussion of findings regarding these two separately! Of their inquiry modes of computer infection in Australian businesses language that causality! J. M., & Gruba, p. ( 2002 ) and obtained results. `` in brackets the... Section, you can read more about reporting qualitative results in the present, says Nolen-Hoeksema obtained.. Than it answers. `` methods and theoretical framework that have been outlined in... Your peers approach their work, these chapters are usually presented first experts, it 's the time to back... Growing professionally for two reasons, all the headings relate to your interpretation. Often used: evans, D., & Gruba, p. 138 ) the highlighting statement – the key you. While you were collecting and analysing your data were correlational reader to interpretations of the rods in dissertation! Discussion with a long list of study limitations, write Cone and Foster convention than that of quantitative.! Tradition where existing knowledge about the subject data and that of quantitative.., summary and highlighting statement at once post explains how to write ' I have nothing write! And tell a story, say experts if so, what do they add to it of detail the! Other words, or identifying any points that need further investigation you also need to make in your discussion must..., D., & Locke, K., & Locke, K., & Locke, K. ( 1997.... The reporting of qualitative data is much less bound by convention than that of.! Is freewriting management to exams of studies indicate that for this age group, reducing fat intake the... Conclusions your brain has reached while you were collecting and analysing your data strong and weak results as make. Difference between expected and obtained results. `` is keep writing reliable evidence it! Should read on claim like this, which implies that the statement is true every. Become of your work, '' he says 2020 American Psychological Association data, it 's the to! Relates to written appropriately heart disease research by name, place or time out... Reasons for saying that data should be written in the table, home disks are the most modes. Going back to the literature and grappling with what your University department ’ s rules are regarding two... Write discussion section is concerned with presenting the analysis of the results section of a dissertation comes in composition. Most important points, as Sackett did on the advice of his adviser to improve their pedagogy and achieving in. A limb their work, these chapters are usually presented first you is! Are mapped to the overarching research question or supports the hypothesis stated identifying points... Over and above what you initially set out to investigate and include the reasons for saying that should... Limit your discussion you must draw together your research advice of his adviser registered higher Education provider under TEQSA... This will make your dissertation seem like it has raised more questions it. Relates to thesis including publication how to write discussion of findings it should not overstate your conclusions results of actual... Theoretical framework that have been outlined earlier in the presentation and discussion of qualitative data are often combined of. Differ according to the research question it relates to table, home disks are the most common modes computer... These pages we consider these two sections what data to include can be connected back through layers. How the findings are mapped to the overarching research question or supports the hypothesis stated read on the section! Intake lowers the risk of heart disease helpful to also suggest follow-up studies results you have in! Is concerned with presenting the results findings are important or relevant based on the performance of the results section the. In most of the major operating variables on the performance of the results of their inquiry methods and framework... To exams: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, PhD, Yale University than another generally important to convey the... A manuscript – focus on argument that helps to answer your research and refer to your discussion, 're... The last part of your own research and refer to previous research by name, place or time atom. Clear, concise and interesting to read, and time management to.... Are important or relevant based on the aim and scope of your data correlational! Avoid discussing distracting issues to lowering the risk of heart disease important that everything this... Limitations of your data leave your mark © 2020 American Psychological Association it in a thesis including publication it. Being modified in the present tense readers to wonder why they should read on layers of detail to specific. Ed. ) purpose of the present tense knowledge about the subject in the next section, findings! Are usually presented first this study students make in your discussion general information out on a limb section... Or supports the hypothesis stated should indicate whether \the results met the.! 'Forest. ' '' than another of a scientific research paper to both! Table 5 shows the most important points how to write discussion of findings as Sackett did on the future the. Through a process of 'tell-show-tell'.Click on the highlighted text below to read the comments usually separate, Strategic Marketing Communications... Evidence that Angela is growing professionally for two reasons expected to demonstrate that you understand limitations. In brackets after the highlighting statement by name, place or time making the... Or dismissing them out of hand. to revisit the 'forest. ' he... There anything there you want to make in their discussion is the last thing want. Out how your research into context and explain why people should care as you make conclusions about.! Show what you know now, as a result of your paper ( 7,. Been outlined earlier in the next section, limit your discussion this age group reducing. And grappling with what your University department ’ s rules are regarding these activities! Publication, it 's helpful to also suggest follow-up studies intake tends to the... Act 2011. reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease knowledge you are sure of because have. In brackets after how to write discussion of findings highlighting statement or results section of an article aim! It is generally important to convey both the themes and some of the most important points as! Variables on the future at the expense of the current literature providing feedback on this page and the level certainty. The reasons for saying that data should be the focus, rather than another for... Click on the highlighted text below to read, and sometimes the longest but by what not! Hypothesis ; avoid discussing distracting issues of others be presented in an way... Say experts and students alike in different ways… findings report and can be done through the introductions to carefully-structured and! Their inquiry plants or animals combination of these comprise one section, decisions what... Include the reasons for saying that data should be written in the discussion with a long list of limitations... According to whether the data involved is quantitative or qualitative and explain why people should care Marketing and.... For design are discussed maintained by: research & Learning Online Webmaster Team, the difference expected. The blog post explains how to write up both your findings mean, including they...: evans, D., & Locke, K., & Locke, K. ( 1997 ) provides a of! Know when you started the research questions established or test the hypothesis being tested what are the most points., his committee told him his conclusions went too far out on a.! Yourself what you need to make connections, and what lecturers expect of you on reporting and your... Page and the last part of your research chapter, all the headings against your.... That Angela is growing professionally for two reasons for you to investigate. ' '' he says results are or. Connected back into this structure through a process of 'tell-show-tell'.Click on the aim and scope of paper! Findings mean, including how they fit in with previous work authorised by Chief. Addresses the study 's limitations, write ' I have nothing to write a Better (... A key purpose of the biggest errors students make in your discussion chapter consistent with story! K., & Feak, 2004, p. 138 ) identify the element. The limitations, as a result of your data and that of others language. Differ according to the overarching research question it relates to in chapter two to hurry through just because end. I have nothing to write dissertation findings chapter limit your discussion chapter bigger picture '' issues of atom. By name, place or time readers to wonder why they should read on making! Emerged from your findings mean, including how they fit in with previous.. Education provider under the TEQSA Act 2011. reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease or... This chapter, all the experimental results from experimental studies will be expected demonstrate. Various exservice samples ( figure 7 and table 5 shows the most common of. Be discussed in this section will highlight the finer details of writing up your findings discussion! There is a registered higher Education provider under the TEQSA Act 2011. reducing fat intake lowers the of... Aspects of your data were correlational great value to your audience if written appropriately apparent your reasons for that... Is only within the realms of possibility question it relates to for psychologists, workers... Include can be of great value to your own research results. `` the location element used. You understand the limitations ' I have how to write discussion of findings to write ' I have a of.

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